ICLEI Local Governments for Sustainability
Workshop on Water-Energy Co-management in Kanpur and Stakeholder Discussion
Final Training Programme and Stakeholder Meeting was organized by WWF India with collaboration of ICLEI South Asia on 14th December, 2011 at Kanpur. The Key note address was presented by Mr. U N Tiwari, Add. Commissioner, Kanpur Nagar Nigam (KNN). Mr. B K Singh from Kanpur Jal Kal Vibhag talked on Energy Conservation initiatives by  Jal Kal Vibhag, KNN.

Mr. Ravi Ranjan Guru, Mr. Ramesh Juvekar and Mr. Keshav Jha represented ICLEI South Asia Team. Mr. Suresh Babu, Dr. Sejal Worah, Mr. Abhishek Nath accompanied the WWF India Team.

In the first session of the workshop, Mr. Ravi Ranjan discussed “Steps to designing Water-Energy Co-management Programme” and “Monitoring of Watergy: Tools and processes” along with Business Plans on Watergy for 5 pumping stations in Kanpur. The team had presented major findings of the Detailed Energy Report and project outcomes were discussed with stakeholders.

The city has shown great interest and is urged to continue to support city on different energy efficiency and conservation initiatives and to improve upon the efficiency of the water and energy co-management systems for their municipal staff on various subjects in line with the suggested measures.

On 13th December, A training programme was conducted for Kanpur Jal Kal Vibhag officials, where Mr. Ravi Ranjan and Mr. Keshav Jha discussed about a possible available National and International financing opportunities in the Energy Efficiency sector.
KNN staff trained under ‘Living Ganga Programme’
ICLEI South Asia along with its partner WWF India successfully completed the last training programme for Kanpur Nagar Nigam staff members, Jalkal and Jalnigam under the ‘Living Ganga Programme’. It helps them provide solution for operation and maintenance in water and waste water pumping systems in Kanpur to improve energy efficiency.

The programme was inaugurated on 11th May, 2011, by Hon’ble Municipal Commissioner, Kanpur Nagar Nigam. Over 60-65 participants took part in the training programme.
Capacity Building Workshop on Energy Efficiency in Kanpur
A capacity building workshop for the water utilities' department (Kanpur Jal Sansthan) of the Kanpur Nagar Nigam on 30 and 31 July 2010. The two day workshop was undertaken as a part of the WWF Living Ganga programme and organized in collaboration with Kanpur Nagar Nigam.

The workshop was inaugurated by the additional commissioner of Kanpur Nagar Nigam, Mr UN Tiwari, and the Secretary of Kanpur Jal Sansthan, Mr B K singh. The team from WWF India began the workshop proceedings with a brief introduction about the Living Ganga programme. The external consultant, Mr Ramesh Juvekar, conducted an interactive session with all the plant operators present based on the recently concluded study, 'Energy Audit of Zonal Pumping and Sewage Pumping Stations of city of Kanpur', completed by ICLEI South Asia. The focus of the session was on low cost and no cost measures in plant operations to maximise efficiency and minimize water cost. 
Water Quality Analysis of Kanpur city under the Living Ganga Programme
ICLEI South Asia, with the assistance of Ecomen Laboratories, has undertaken water quality analysis of Kanpur city as part of the Living Ganga Programme of WWF – India. The aim of the water quality analysis will be to:
  • Identify areas with contaminated or polluted water and sources of pollution of water.
  • Suggest measures for improvement of water quality and effective management systems, including bioremediation techniques.

The water samples were collected from 13 surface water points, 13 ground water points and 5 effluent water points. The samples were analysed for different parameters:
  • Physico-chemical – pH, EC, Total Hardness, Total  Alkalinity, Nitrate, Iron, Chloride, Fluoride, Phosphate, COD, DO, BOD, transparency and temperature
  • Heavy Metal – Pb, Cd, Cr, and As
  • Bacteriological – TC and FC
  • Pesticide – Lindane – in one sample.

Sampling and analysis was conducted in two seasons, pre monsoon and post monsoon for each of the sampling sites.

The main observations from the study are outlined below:
  • In Kanpur the surface water is heavily polluted with sewage as well as industrial effluents, especially from the tannery industries. The principal reasons are indiscriminate dumping of waste in the river, open defecation around the river banks, use of river water for dumping of unclaimed dead bodies, improper treatment plant operation, and release of partially treated waste water in the river.
  • Untreated sewage and tannery effluents are the major pollutants in surface water. Several open drains with sewage and tannery effluents lead to the Ganga with partial or no treatment.
  • Most of the surface water samples are unfit to bathe in with higher than acceptable BOD levels and lower than acceptable DO levels.
  • Coliform pollution is found in places from where drinking water is collected such as the Ganga Barrage and Moti Jheel.
  • The ground water in Kanpur is being polluted by leaching of drains carrying sewage or tannery effluents, irrigation using untreated or partially treated sewage, and leaching of industrial effluents released into the river. It has high levels of hardness. It has high levels of arsenic, mercury and chromium, especially in pre monsoon season. In post monsoon season, even ground water shows coliform pollution, although coliforms were absent in the pre monsoon season.
  • The irrigation channel, which carried treated water from the Sewage Treatment Plants, have high levels of heavy metals especially mercury and chromium.

The principal recommendations are as follows:
  1. Awareness regarding pollution due to religious activities such as burning of corpses at the ghats, dumping partially burnt dead bodies, disposal of animal corpses or ashes in the river, a lack of basic sanitation facilities for people who use the ghats, disposal of the flowers used in puja and immersion of idols, should be raised among the public to reduce such action.
  2. Public private partnerships should be encouraged to undertake awareness activities as well as facilitating basic sanitation for users at the ghats.
  3. The drains opening directly into the river should be channelized into the sewage treatment plant for treatment before disposal. The municipal corporation may have to look into ways of making the process of sewage treatment financially viable, by providing suitable tariff structure. This will ensure that the treatment plants do not operate below their optimum capacity.
  4. Immediate measures should be taken to ensure that tannery effluents or effluents from small scale industries can be treated before disposal in the river or other places. Public private partnership is important to undertake such activities.
  5. The water bodies in the city require regular cleaning and maintenance activities, such as the Kanpur Zoo Lake.
  6. Primary reasons for pollution of hand pump water are poor maintenance of hand pump platforms, seepage from nearby drains or nalas, and solid waste dumping in nearby areas. It is recommended that platforms of handpumps should be maintained and public awareness needs to be raised regarding the harmful effects of polluting activities near handpumps used for drinking water. The corporation should involve the communities in maintenance of handpumps since they are regularly used by them.
Stakeholder Consultation in Kanpur
A stakeholder consultation meeting was held in Kanpur on 16 September 2009 by the Kanpur Municipal Corporation for the Living Ganga Programme of WWF – India. ICLEI South Asia participated in the meeting as the consultant for the energy audit and water quality analysis in Kanpur city undertaken as part of the programme.

The meeting was held at the Kanpur Municipal Corporation office, with about 20 participants from various organisations, including representatives from Kanpur Nagar Nigam, Kanpur Development Authority, Jal Sansthan, Jal Nigam, as well as NGOs like Ecofriends, among others.

The meeting was presided over by the Kanpur Additional Municipal Commissioner Mr. K N Tiwari. Dr. Suresh Rohilla from WWF – India presented on the Living Ganga Programme, describing the objectives and activities under the programme. ICLEI South Asia representative Ms. Bedoshruti Sadhukhan presented on the activities undertaken by ICLEI South Asia in Kanpur under this programme, viz, energy audit of water system and sewerage system. The presentation gave details of the low or no cost, medium cost and high cost options that were suggested through detailed audit of selected water and sewage pumping stations so as to improve energy efficiency and reduce consumption of energy by the stations.

The consultation gave rise to a lively discussion on the activities that can be undertaken immediately by the Kanpur Nagar Nigam to reduce their energy bills. The Additional Commissioner suggested that ICLEI SA should take up activities of energy auditing for the Nagar Nigam buildings as well.
Stakeholder Consultation in Kanpur
A stakeholder consultation meeting was held in Kanpur by the Kanpur Municipal Corporation for the Living Ganga Programme of WWF – India. ICLEI South Asia participated in the meeting as the consultant for the energy audit and water quality analysis in Kanpur city undertaken as part of the programme.

The meeting was held on 8 May 2009 at the Kanpur Municipal Corporation office, with about 30 participants from various organisations, including representatives from UP Non-Conventional Energy Development Agency, IIT Kanpur, IIA, Central Pollution Control Board, UP Pollution Control Board, Kanpur Nagar Nigam, Kanpur Development Authority, UP Leather Industries Association, UP Housing Board, Ecofriends, among others.

The meeting was presided over by the Kanpur Municipal Commissioner Mr. P K Pandey. Dr. Suresh Rohilla from WWF – India presented on the Living Ganga Programme, describing the objectives and activities under the programme. ICLEI South Asia representative Ms. Bedoshruti Sadhukhan presented on the activities undertaken by ICLEI South Asia in Kanpur under this programme including energy audit of water system and sewerage system. Some basic outcomes of the study such as need for detailed study of energy consumption by the water supply and sewage system, need for investigation on major water losses and management of ground water utilization as well as basic measures to improve energy efficiency in sewage pumping stations were presented to the group.

The consultation gave rise to a lively discussion on the activities that can be undertaken to better manage the water supply and sewage disposal in the city. It was suggested that the study should take into account the percentage of original Ganga water in the river in Kanpur. It was also suggested that there is need for both end of the pipe solutions as well as in house efforts to reduce pollution loads on the river water.
Walk through Energy Audit for Sewerage Pumping Stations and Water Pumping Stations in Kanpur
Under the India Climate Change Programme, a team from ICLEI SA met with the Municipal Commissioner of Kanpur Nagar Nigam and key officials from the Jal Sansthan and Jal Nigam in Kanpur. The meeting focused on project description, project objective, audit objectives and scope of work, roles and responsibilities of project team members, and description of scheduled project activities. Key officials included the General Manager and responsible engineers of the Jal Nigam and Jal Sansthan.

A bird’s eye view of the city water and sewerage system was undertaken by the team which visited Kanpur. During this visit, basic information was collected on the water and sewerage supply system of the city by meeting with officials, and visiting the supply and treatment systems. Data was collected from the officials regarding the water and sewerage supply including, maps of Kanpur showing locations of Tube wells, STPs & WTPs, list of municipal wards, their 2001 census population & projections for 2010, 2025 & 2040 years done by UP Jal Nigam, data on city water supply & sewerage disposal facility compiled by UP Jal Nigam, electricity bills information and part data available with UP Jal Nigam & Jal Sansthan.

A walk through energy audit was conducted for the sewerage treatment system and pumping stations and the water pumping stations for Kanpur. 11 sewage pumping stations and 39 zonal water pumping stations have been covered under this audit.

Kanpur city water supply is managed by Kanpur Nagar Nigam, UP Jal Sansthan, UP Jal Nigam. Kanpur Electric Supply Company supplies power to UP Jal Sansthan as a bulk consumer. It was seen from the audits that the city faces prominent power shortage warranting a study of the power consumption by the water and sewage system and better management of the energy consumed.

The surface water generation of the city is done in a conventional manner at three locations and through 4 Water Treatment Plants namely Bhairav Ghat, Ganga Canal, Gujjaini and Ganga Barrage with a total capacity of 508 MLD. Daily, on an average 6.4 MLD treated water is used for filters backwashing at WTPs and is drained without any recycling effort. Treated water at WTPs is stored in ground service reservoirs at respective plant. It is then pumped out to the ground reservoirs located at the 39 Zonal Pumping Stations scattered all over the city. Apart from surface water, there are about 150 bore wells with hand pumps installed mainly in the slum areas. Jal Sansthan has its own/subcontractor staff operating and maintaining these tube wells. The average watergy of tube wells operation by Jal Sansthan works out to be 244 KWh/ML. The average watergy for Zonal Pumping Stations is 119.87 KWh/ML.

The gap between the demand and availability of water is more than 200 MLD. Unaccounted for water is more than 100 MLD including both commercial and physical losses. Detailed recommendations have been worked out for the energy conservation and efficiency of the pumping stations in Kanpur. 

In Kanpur, the existing sewage treatment facility at Jajmau with a 5 MLD, a 36 MLD and a 130 MLD Treatment Plants are operated and maintained by Jal Nigam. Leakage has been identified in one of the sewers which is a major cause of monetary losses for the Jal Sansthan as well as pollution of the river and less than optimum use of the sewage treatment plant. There is also less than optimum use of all sewage pumping stations. The sewage disposal plant also has problems of sludge disposal because of toxic trace elements present in teh sludge. Specific measures have been identified to improve functioning of 11 pumping stations.
Site visit to Kanpur for HSBC Climate Change Program
A preliminary site visit was conducted by ICLEI South Asia to Kanpur to get an idea of the ground situation regarding the water treatment and waste water treatment facilities. This site visit helped to gather information on the water and waste water systems used in the city. The main objective of this visit was to come out with a bird view of city water distribution and energy losses and formulate the detailed action plan for the project.
During the visit held between 25 September and 1 October, the ICLEI team held meetings with Mr. D P Singh, the General Manager, Jal Nigam and Er. B.K. Singh, Executive Engineer, Jal Sansthan of Kanpur who is looking after the sewage and water supply system of the city. Discussions were held on the water supply and sewage supply system in details and site visits were arranged to the supply plants in the city. The consultant from ICLEI SA visited the water supply plant and the sewage treatment system in Jajmau in Kanpur.
A bird view of the city’s water supply and sewage supply system will be prepared over the next two weeks and a action plan will be formulated to initiate project activities in the city based on the bird view report.

ICLEI SA signs MoU with WWF- India
ICLEI South Asia, the South Asia regional chapter of ICLEI - Local Governments for Sustainability, a global association of local governments, and WWF India, one of the largest conservation organizations in the country, signed a partnership agreement on September 11, 2008 in New Delhi to explore and undertake projects jointly in the areas of urbanization and sustainability as part of the objective of transition towards a low carbon economy. It is an attempt to develop ideas and actions for sustainable growth based on relevant dimensions of environmental sustainability and governance in urban sector. The memorandum of understanding was signed by Mr. Emani Kumar, Executive Director, ICLEI SA and Mr. Ravi Singh, Secretary General & CEO, WWF India, in New Delhi today.