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There is a well recognised inter-connectivity between biodiversity conservation, poverty alleviation and sustainable development. Humankind and all other forms of life directly depend on biodiversity for their very existence. Our rich biodiversity forms an ecological treasure chest used by humankind for agricultural, medicinal, horticultural, structural, spiritual and many other purposes. Cities take up only about 2% of the world’s land area, yet they consume 75% of all resources, and therefore utilise far more resources than those contained within their boundaries. This highlights the critical role that local governments play in the management and conservation of biodiversity in the urban context. Local governments are in the front-line for managing urban biodiversity, and can have a significant impact on conserving and managing the world’s biodiversity in a sustainable manner.